background study of cowpea
1.1 Background of the Study Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L).Walp) is a tropical grain legume widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Asia, parts of the United States and Southern Europe (Singh et al.,  A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. breeding lines in the IIT A collection, seed protein. Background:Nutritional anemia is a public health problem among Ghanaian schoolchildren. Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world production.  They also use the cowpea paste as a supplement in infant formula when weaning babies off milk. Exact figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is not a major export crop. BACKGROUND. However, field trials confirming the benefits of microbes in large-scale applications using economically viable and efficient inoculation methods are still scarce. 1.1 Background to the Study Cowpea is a popular and nutritionally important legume crop in many parts of the world. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. Generally, 133,000 seeds are planted per hectare (54,000/acre) for the erect varieties and 60,000 per hectare (24,000/acre) for the climbing and trailing varieties.  A popular dish was Hoppin' John, which contained black-eyed peas cooked with rice and seasoned with pork. The commonly used washing treatments in household processing were used for comparison. Close, Alisa Huffaker, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 16:03.  In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre).  The Sahel region also contains other major producers such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Mali. Over 60% of cowpea growing area is in west and central Africa (WCA), but a Background: Beans from cowpea cultivars fertilized with mineral N or inoculated with various rhizobium strains may contain different nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen metabolite composition, which affects the beans' defense mechanisms against pests. Rar.  While the insect can cause damage through all growth stages, most of the damage occurs during flowering. Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. A review of the genetics, genomics and breeding of cowpea …  Slaves brought to America and the West Indies cooked cowpeas much the same way as they did in Africa, although many people in the American South considered cowpeas not suitable for human consumption.  A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod.  Remains of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana have been dated to the second millennium BCE. The . However, post-harvest losses associated with this crop still remain a critical issue of concern in most developing countries.  Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds. It is a member of the leaf beetle family, Chrysomelidae, and not a true weevil.This common pest of stored legumes has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring on every continent except Antarctica.  The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks.  Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. (IPM CRSP, 2000). Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing. In addition to their use as a protein-rich food crop, cowpeas are extensively grown  Common names for cultivated cowpeas include; black-eye pea, southern pea, niebe (alternatively ñebbe), and crowder pea. Higher meat prices during recent years and the need for protein- rich foods have led people in the most developing countries to shift their consumption to cowpeas and other grain legumes.  Like other legumes, cowpeas are cooked to make them edible, usually by boiling. Finally, to all members of “The Prayer Stronghold International Ministries” family friends ... General background and History 5 2.1.3. , The optimum temperature for cowpea growth is 30 °C (86 °F), making it only available as a summer crop for most of the world. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. , Outside Africa, the major production areas are Asia, Central America, and South America.  New research using molecular markers has suggested that domestication may have instead occurred in East Africa and currently both theories carry equal weight. Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is the most important grain legume and fodder crop in the dry savannas of tropical Africa.  They can also be processed into a paste or flour. 1, No 1, June 2019 55 However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to …  All cultivated cowpeas are found within the universally accepted V. unguiculata subspecies unguiculata classification, which is then commonly divided into four cultivar groups: unguiculata, biflora, sesquipedalis, and textilis.  One of the more recent developments is the use a cheap, reusable double-bagging system (called PICs) that asphyxiates the cowpea weevils. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of genetic diversity present among a collection of cowpea accessions from Zambia and Malawi using phenotypic traits and single nucleotide …  Black-eyed pea, a common name used for the unguiculata cultivar group, describes the presence of a distinctive black spot at the hilum of the seed.  It causes damage to the flower buds, flowers, and pods of the plant, with infestations resulting in a 20–88% loss of yield. A high level of morphological diversity is found within the species with large variations in the size, shape, and structure of the plant.  Cowpea starch is digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which is more beneficial to human health. The whole plant is used as … cowpea crop species on the farmers’ land, distribution status, finding the suitable solution for the major production areas in the study area, what are the constraints of cowpea productions in the study area and so on? Cowpea seeds acts as a major source of protein (22-24%), vitamins and minerals (Coetzee 1995).  Insect infestation is a major constraint to the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90% loss in yield. The seeds can be harvested after about 100 days or the whole plant used as forage after about 120 days. unguiculata var. , Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea.  Common diseases include blights, root rot, wilt, powdery mildew, root knot, rust and leaf spot. Background: Productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] in sub-Sahara Africa is curtailed by a lack of farmer-preferred and improved cultivars and modern production technologies. Cowpea is a legume that is extensively grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa.  The name was most likely acquired due to their use as a fodder crop for cows. It improves soil fertility because of its ability to fix nitrogen efficiently (up to 240 kg N per hectare) and can leave a fixed- N deposit in the soil of up to 60 – 70 kg/ha for the succecding crop (Rechie, 1985; Kachare, et al.1988).  Sesquipedalis in Latin means "foot and a half long", and this subspecies which arrived in the United States via Asia is characterised by unusually long pods, leading to the common names of yardlong bean, asparagus bean, and Chinese long-bean. , While the date of cultivation began may be uncertain, it is still considered one of the oldest domesticated crops. Sosulski, 1987; Fashakin, 1986; Philips, 1987; Saeed, 1977; El Hardallou, 1980). Four subspecies of cowpeas are recognised, of which three are cultivated. 1.1 Background Cowpea is a widely grown legume in tropical and subtropical Africa.  Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha. Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), is an important grain legume grown in the tropics where it constitutes a valuable source of protein in the diets of millions of people. Of the different species of bean consume in the country, cowpeas in particular have attracted attention as possible home grown sources of protein and successive selections have made it possible to introduce several high yielding varieties with desirable packages of nutrients and with resistance to pest and microbial infections (Ologhobo et al, 1983). In addition, they supply the essential minerals, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc and phosphorus (Aykroyed et al. The objectives of the study were to The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus.  The first written references to the cowpea were in 300 BC and they probably reached Central and North America during the slave trade through the 17th to early 19th centuries. Background: Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the ability to enhance the growth, fitness, and quality of various agricultural crops, including cowpea. 30, A receptor-like protein mediates plant immune responses to herbivore-associated molecular patterns, Saliva From Hungry Caterpillars Alerts Cowpea Plants to Turn on Their Defenses, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cowpea&oldid=1001180911, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, crowder-pea, southern pea, black-eyed pea, niebe, ñebbe, yardlong bean, asparagus bean, Chinese long-bean. Cowpea proteins provide the three esential amino acids lysine threonine and methionine, (Dhankher et al 1990.  Cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp) is an indigenous African legume crop that is widely cultivated in the semi-arid tropical regions of Asia, Oceania, Africa, the Middle East, southern United States of America and Central and South America (Singh et al.2002). Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. Jav. Warm season mixes may also simply outcompete cowpea, specifically warm season grasses such as millet and sorghum-sudangrass.  Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). The pulse is indigenous to Africa (Okigbo, 1986), though it is now grown in other continents, such as Central America (Bressani et al.  Other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.  The original subgroups of stenophylla, dekindtiana, and tenuis appear to be common in all taxonomic treatments, while the variations pubescens and protractor were raised to subspecies level by a 1993 characterisation. 1961) as well as North and South America and Asia. Black-eyed peas were first introduced to the southern states in the United States and some early varieties had peas squashed closely together in their pods, leading to the other common names of southern pea and crowder pea. One peduncle can support four or more seed pods.  However, it does contain some antinutritional elements, notable phytic acid and protease inhibitors, which reduce the nutritional value of the crop. Brazil is the world's second-leading producer of cowpea seed, accounting for 17% of annual cowpea production, although most is consumed within the country. Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides Karolina E Mellor, Ava M Hoffman and Michael P Timko* Abstract Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an …  The plant is susceptible to mosaic viruses, which cause a green mosaic pattern to appear in the leaves. Chloe Bustillo. 1.1 Background of the study. Study subjects will receive 3 times per week, as part of the school feeding programme 66g of raw fortified cowpea (with added 10mg Fe as NaFeEDTA)in form of Toubani (a cowpea based snack).  More modern methods include storage in airtight containers, using gamma irradiation, or heating or freezing the seeds. Review of Politics and Public Policy in Emerging Economies Vol. The cowpea is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna.  The grain is a rich source of folic acid, an important vitamin that helps prevent neural tube defects in unborn babies.  The classification of the wild relatives within V. unguiculata is more complicated, with over 20 different names having been used and between 3 and 10 subgroups described. , This appears to be one of the latest taxonomical classifications, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "International Plant Names Index, entry for, "International Plant Names Index, entry for Pl. Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is a highly important grain legume crop grown in semi-arid and dry savannah agro-ecological zones of the tropics. Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively … RESULTS  Their texture and colour are very diverse. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils.Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest … 1976).  Another distinguishing feature of cowpeas is the long 20–50 cm (8–20 in) peduncles, which hold the flowers and seed pods. Intense efforts to find alternative sources of proteins from plants adapted to adverse conditions are being conducted around the world (Siddhuraju et al. PubMed Central.  Its nitrogen-fixing ability means that as well as functioning as a sole crop, the cowpea can be effectively intercropped with sorghum, millet, maize, cassava, or cotton.  In 2300 BC, the cowpea is believed to have made its way into Southeast Asia, where secondary domestication events may have occurred. Adam D. Steinbrenner, Maria Muñoz-Amatriaín, Antonio F. Chaparro, Jessica Montserrat Aguilar-Venegas, Sassoum Lo, Satohiro Okuda, Gaetan Glauser, Julien Dongiovanni, Da Shi, Marlo Hall, Daniel Crubaugh, Nicholas Holton, Cyril Zipfel, Ruben Abagyan, Ted C. J. Turlings, Timothy J.  The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed.  The larvae burrow their way into the seed, feeding on the endosperm. Background 5 2.1.4.  Temperatures of 60 °C (140 °F) kill the weevil larvae, leading to a recent push to develop cheap forms of solar heating that can be used to treat stored grain. It is grown on more than 12.5 million hectares of largely smallholder farms, with an estimated production of more than 3 million metric tonnes. Background. The grain provides valuable protein and the leaves are used as a nutritious vegetable. , A large morphological diversity is found within the crop, and the growth conditions and grower preferences for each variety vary from region to region.  The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea.  The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea and the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus the main postharvest pest. It is a subsistence crop, often intercropped with sorghum, maize and pearl millet. 1.1 Background of the Study 1 1.2 Problem Statement 6 1.3 Objectives of the Study 10 1.4 Justification of the Study 10 1.5 Organisation of the Study 14 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 15 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Cowpea Production 15 2.2.1 Economic importance of cowpea production 15 2.2.2 Determinants of cowpea production 18 Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. Cowpea is grown mainly for the seed and sometimes pods in West Africa, India and South America, but it is grown for both seeds, pods and leaves in East Africa. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. Early-maturing varieties of the crop can thrive in the semiarid climate, where rainfall is often less than 500 mm (20 in). , The cowpea has often been referred to as "poor man's meat" due to the high levels of protein found in the seeds and leaves. Vigna unguiculata is a member of the Vigna (peas and beans) genus. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. They can have a smooth or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or blotchy. This trend has been observed in parts of northern Nigeria where pork and pork products, horse meat, donkey meat and meat of camels and asses are avoided by muslims. Economically useful as vegetable ( leaves ), fodder and as quick growing cover-crop tolerance for infertile acid! Comparative study of the seeds [ 40 ] Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive rely! Be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops the endosperm for over 90 % loss yield! 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